2 Sep The ASTM International (ASTM) F Subcommittee (the Subcommittee responsible for the impact attenuation test method standard F). specification for playground surfacing performance (ASTM F). The most common misconception stems from the thought that if a playground surfacing. A playground surface is the material that lies under and around swings, slides, monkey bars . The wood chips are springy enough to meet ASTM F for impact attenuation and firm enough to meet ASTM F for wheelchair access.

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Mapping of the place where the accidents occurred, which is based on the records in local hospitals, is effective to determine the risk of accidents in a residential area. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. This study was supported by Japan Park Facilitate Association.

Playground surfacing – Wikipedia

HIC and regression equation on the bare ground and loose fill surface. I do not believe any of these things will add substantial cost to the surface system.

The difference between the scores of the both procedures also increased with drop height. Although it was said that F should be improved in the past study 15the specification has been conventionally applied as the standard evaluation method for loose fill materials for a long time and it was renewed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

This page was last edited on 15 Januaryat Accessed August 30, When it comes to other impact-related injuries such as falls to the underlying playground protective surfacing, there has been no action taken to reduce impact thresholds in the current ASTM F In the United States, as well as being safe, a playground surface should be firm enough to meet the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Actwhich means it must offer easy mobility for children in wheelchairs.

The peak of the wave, which represents G-max, became larger with the drop height.

That is to say, appropriate loose fill surface and reliable evaluations are necessary to protect children from injury and death by fall accidents from playground equipment. This would be confirmed in writing by both the surface system and play equipment providers by the manufacturer, or their agent, prior to final acceptance. The correction value to be added to the temporal score can be estimated by the transformation equation as follows. Studies in Great Britain and Australia have stated there appears to be no conclusive evidence that surfacing systems reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from falls to the surface.


The standard includes procedures allowing surfacing materials to be performance-rated before installation and for installed surfacing materials to be tested for conformance with the specification. ATP refers to Aliphatic Thermoplastic Polyurethane, a firm, yet flexible, plastic in which sphere-like particles are chemically bonded to a color-fast binding material.

The following apparatus shall be required for implementation of the two test methods: In this test, G-max and the HIC are used to estimate the risk of injury. Figure 6 shows the coefficient difference of the regression equation for G-max and the HIC between the standardized and shortened procedures. On the other hand, coefficient difference for the HIC depends on both of the drop height and sand depth. Variation of acceleration of impact attenuation on the bare ground surface cp: Only when we can document this information can we begin to address any reduction in serious head injuries and life threatening permanently debilitating injuries plus some reduction in long bone fractures.

In this study, the scores of a previous study 19 were used as a part of the score by the shortened procedure. Therefore, it is necessary to protect children from fall accidents in playgrounds. The regression equations between G-max and drop height of the standardized procedures and those of the shortened procedure were compared to obtain transformation equations.

Consequently, the specification is appropriately used to determine the actual impact attenuation performance of installed playground surfaces under ambient conditions of use. Because the scores obtained by the shortened procedure are smaller than those obtained by the standardized procedure, the scores must be appropriately transformed.

Articles with limited geographic scope from December Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Retrieved from ” https: This can also be said for the HIC as shown in Fig. All playground areas and equipment should be inspected for excessive wear, deterioration, and any potential hazards, such as those shown in Table 3 Specifically Problems with surfacing i.

The speed at the moment of impact is determined by drop height. Over 15, people are accidentally killed in daily life in Japan every year. I for one do not subscribe to this notion and believe that a well thought out research study that analyzes all the factors related to the cause and effect of falls injuries will show:.


The information necessary to maintain compliance with these Standards should include everything related to maintaining performance including, but not limited to installation requirements; maintenance procedures and special materials or tools required; inspection frequency; routine and foreseeable maintenance requirements; and repairs required to keep the system in compliance with ASTM F and the various impact-attenuating surfacing standards as referenced and implied below.

The Head Injury Criterion or HIC score is an empirical measure of impact severity based on published research describing the relationship between the magnitude and duration of impact accelerations and the risk of head trauma.

Variation of acceleration at the moment of impact depends on the drop height and sand depth. Correction values calculated by the transformation equations were added to the scores of the shortened procedure to estimate the evaluation scores. Severe head injuries are the most frequently implicated cause of death in playground equipment-related falls. I for one do not subscribe to this notion and believe that a well thought out research study that analyzes all the factors related to the cause and effect of falls injuries will show: It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

The dimensions and configuration of the use zone shall be dependent upon the type of play equipment, as specified in Section 9. If it is not compliant to all the standards it will be argued the injury may not have occurred. Generally, children need many different kinds of experiences while growing up. Approximately half of the children under the age of two had head or facial injuries and 41 percent of them were injured with public playground equipment 5.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

This article needs additional citations for verification. In another study, tanbark was tested as one of the attenuation materials for outdoor playgrounds. Therefore, a shortened procedure should be adopted for mass evaluation, which would enable early evaluation of risk of f2192 from playing equipment.

The measurement procedure in Figs.